The Tuileries Palace was a royal palace which once stood on the bank of the river Seine. It was inhabited by several kings and queens, including Louis XVI and his court after their forced removal from Versailles. It was thereafter used as the center of court and power for the various emperors and kings which followed after the revolution of 1789. In 1871, it was the victim of arson which destroyed the interior of the palace, and in 1882 the ruins were demolished.
Wikipedia has a pretty good general description of its history which can be read here.